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Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome

What is Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)?

PCOS is a condition in which women have a hormonal imbalance that interferes with normal reproductive processes. It is a common condition seen in 12-21 % of women of reproductive age.

What are the symptoms/ features of PCOS?

  • Irregular menstrual cycles or no periods at all
  • Decreased frequency or complete lack of egg formation resulting in difficulty in getting pregnant
  • Abnormal hair growth
  • Obesity
  • Oily skin/Acne
  • Increased tendency to develop diabetes mellitus II

What Causes PCOS?

The cause of PCOS is not well understood but may involve a combination of genetic or environmental factors because it has been seen to run in families

How to diagnose PCOS?

The doctor can make a diagnosis on the basis of detailed history and physical examination. An ultrasound to look for size and volume of ovaries and certain biochemical tests may be done if required.

Prevention

There is no known prevention or cure for PCOS but with proper diet and lifestyle modifications , we can avoid developing some of the complications associated with PCOS like diabetes mellitus, heart problems etc.

Treatment

The treatment depends on age of the patient, whether want to have a baby or not, and the presenting features.

For irregular/delayed menstrual cycles

  • Start with lifestyle changes like exercise and weight loss
  • Birth control pills can be used to regularize the periods
  • Metformin can be used to improve insulin resistance helping in egg formation leading to regular periods

For hirsutism

  • Cosmetic therapy like laser or local cream can be used
  • Birth control pill can be combined
  • Medicines to decrease like male sex hormones can be added.

Infertility/ Difficulty in conception

  • Lifestyle changes
  • Medicines/ injections are given for egg formation and monitoring is done with the help of ultrasound with planned relations at the time of egg release

Cardiometabolic diease

  • Lifestyle changes
  • Metformin

So if you are suffering from any of the features associated with PCOS, consult a doctor today who will help and guide along the right path of treatment